United States Alaska VFR Sectional Charts VFR Terminal Area Charts Helicopter Route Charts IFR Enroute High Charts IFR Enroute Low Charts IFR Area Charts
Seattle Sectional Chart Great Falls Sectional Chart Billings Sectional Chart Twin Cities Sectional Chart Green Bay Sectional Chart Lake Huron Sectional Chart Montreal Sectional Chart Halifax Sectional Chart Klamath Falls Sectional Chart Salt Lake City Sectional Chart Cheyenne Sectional Chart Omaha Sectional Chart Chicago Sectional Chart Detroit Sectional Chart New York Sectional Chart San Francisco Sectional Chart Las Vegas Sectional Chart Denver Sectional Chart Wichita Sectional Chart Kansas City Sectional Chart St. Louis Sectional Chart Cincinnati Sectional Chart Washington Sectional Chart Los Angeles Sectional Chart Phoenix Sectional Chart Albuquerque Sectional Chart Dallas - Ft Worth Sectional Chart Memphis Sectional Chart Atlanta Sectional Chart Charlotte Sectional Chart El Paso Sectional Chart San Antonio Sectional Chart Houston Sectional Chart New Orleans Sectional Chart Jacksonville Sectional Chart Brownsville Sectional Chart Miami Sectional Chart Atlanta Terminal Area Chart Baltimore - Washington Terminal Area Chart Boston Terminal Area Chart Charlotte Terminal Area Chart Chicago Terminal Area Chart Cincinnati Terminal Area Chart Cleveland Terminal Area Chart Dallas - Ft Worth Terminal Area Chart Denver Terminal Area Chart Detroit Terminal Area Chart Houston Terminal Area Chart Kansas City Terminal Area Chart Las Vegas Terminal Area Chart Los Angeles Terminal Area Chart Memphis Terminal Area Chart Miami Terminal Area Chart Minneapolis - St Paul Terminal Area Chart New Orleans Terminal Area Chart New York Terminal Area Chart Philadelphia Terminal Area Chart Phoenix Terminal Area Chart Pittsburgh Terminal Area Chart St. Louis Terminal Area Chart Salt Lake City Terminal Area Chart San Diego Terminal Area Chart San Francisco Terminal Area Chart Seattle Terminal Area Chart Tampa Terminal Area Chart Orlando Terminal Area Chart Colorado Springs Terminal Area Chart Grand Canyon VFR Chart Enroute L-1 Enroute L-2 Enroute L-3 Enroute L-4 Enroute L-5 Enroute L-6 Enroute L-7 Enroute L-8 Enroute L-9 Enroute L-10 Enroute L-11 Enroute L-12 Enroute L-13 Enroute L-14 Enroute L-15 Enroute L-16 Enroute L-17 Enroute L-18 Enroute L-19 Enroute L-20 Enroute L-21 Enroute L-22 Enroute L-23 Enroute L-24 Enroute L-25 Enroute L-26 Enroute L-27 Enroute L-28 Enroute L-29 Enroute L-30 Enroute L-31 Enroute L-32 Enroute L-33 Enroute L-34 Enroute L-35 Enroute L-36 Enroute H-12 Enroute H-1 Enroute H-2 Enroute H-3 Enroute H-4 Enroute H-5 Enroute H-6 Enroute H-7 Enroute H-8 Enroute H-9 Enroute H-10 Enroute H-11 Atlanta Area Chart Chicago Area Chart Denver Area Chart Detroit Area Chart Dallas - Ft. Worth Area Chart Jacksonville Area Chart Kansas City Area Chart Los Angeles Area Chart Miami Area Chart Minneapolis - St. Paul Area Chart Phoenix Area Chart San Francisco Area Chart St. Louis Area Chart D.C. Area Chart New York Helicopter Chart Inset Boston Helicopter Chart Inset D.C. Helicopter Chart Inset Dallas Helicopter Chart Inset Salt Lake City Helicopter Chart Inset Ogden Helicopter Chart Inset New York Helicopter Chart Long Island Helicopter Chart Boston Helicopter Chart D.C. Helicopter Chart Baltimore Helicopter Chart Detroit Helicopter Chart Chicago Helicopter Chart Dallas Helicopter Chart Houston Helicopter Chart Los Angeles Helicopter Chart West Los Angeles Helicopter Chart East Salt Lake City Helicopter Chart Ogden Helicopter Chart Anchorage Sectional Chart Bethel Sectional Chart Cape Lisburne Sectional Chart Cold Bay Sectional Chart Dawson Sectional Chart Dutch Harbor Sectional Chart Fairbanks Sectional Chart Juneau Sectional Chart Ketchikan Sectional Chart Kodiak Sectional Chart McGrath Sectional Chart Nome Sectional Chart Point Barrow Sectional Chart Seward Sectional Chart Western Aleutian Islands Sectional Chart West Western Aleutian Islands Sectional Chart East Whitehorse Sectional Chart Fairbanks Terminal Area Chart Anchorage Terminal Area Chart Alaska Enroute L-3 Alaska Enroute L-4 Alaska Enroute L-1 Alaska Enroute L-2 East Alaska Enroute L-2 Central Alaska Enroute L-2 West Alaska Enroute H-1 Alaska Enroute H-2 Nome Area Chart Fairbanks Area Chart Anchorage Area Chart Juneau Area Chart
9 posts / 0 new
Last post
Visual Flying Steep Turns
Steep turns were one of the maneuvers I found to be difficult as a student pilot. As a student pilot, I was convinced that I needed to continually watch the flight instruments in my attempt to remain within the Private Pilot PTS standards. It wasn't till after the practical test that I realized a much easier way of performing steep turns. In instrument training there is a lot of talk about attitude instrument flying but no one ever told me about attitude visual flying. This method will make steep turns a purely visual maneuver, which is what the maneuver is supposed to be. The easiest way of performing steep turns is to keep the eyes outside the airplane 95% of the time. First setup the airplane; place the nose on a reference point outside the airplane, glance at the altimeter and ensure it is on the assigned altitude and place the nose outside in level flight. To get the airplane in level flight outside the airplane you will need to be able to reference something on the airplane with something outside the airplane. In a small aircraft I use the top of the cowling and the earth horizon. Typically, 3-4 fingers between the cowling upward to the horizon will keep level flight. As you start the steep turn, smoothly apply aileron and rudder till the airplane outside appears to be at 45 degrees. At this point neutralize both controls and glance at the attitude indicator. Immediately pitch up and place the nose of the aircraft on the horizon. Glance at the altimeter to ensure level flight. You may need to add some opposite aileron (small amount) for the overbanking tendency. If you trim out the airplane, the aircraft should stay at the flight attitude you just setup. If done correctly, the controls can be let go of and you can watch the airplane stay in that flight attitude. Monitor the instruments once every 90 degrees of turn for 1 second to ensure the aircraft is staying inside the PTS standards. When your previous reference point comes back into view, smoothly apply aileron and rudder to place the nose on the reference point and place the nose again about 3-4 fingers below the horizon. Retrim as necessary. Steep turns requires the student pilot to be proficient in visual flying (flying purely outside the aircraft), coordinated turns, and proper trimming procedures. This method will introduce a different concept about visual flying. In side-by-side aircraft, the student pilot will perform the steep turns correctly to the left and descend on the right turn due to the reference point on the cowling not being in the middle of the cowling.
Excellent post. Yes, keep
Excellent post. Yes, keep your eyes outside the airplane- the relative movement of the horizon will tell you if you are climbing or descending. Also -after the clearing turns- look almost exclusively out the front windscreen rather than the side windows. The perspective/view changes far too much during a turn to accurately gather much information from a side perspective.
Martin Blank
Works in many places, but not all
In the Los Angeles Basin, it can be difficult to judge where the horizon is in relation to the cowling. At the La Habra practice area a few miles north of KFUL, a significant portion of the horizon is obscured by mountains. The mountains provide great reference points for roll-in and roll-out, but can be a significant hindrance to maintaining level flight. While being able to make the turn visually is important (and easier once you get used to not relying on the instruments so much), learning how to do it by instrument is also useful for when the horizon is unavailable.

You can never go home again... but I guess you can shop there.

I also live in an area with
I also live in an area with numerous mountains (Southern Arizona) and they make great visual checkpoints. I have always told my students to use the base of the mountains as the horizon line. Works like a charm.
len.emery's picture
Steep turns are fun
I fly exclusively in the hills and low mountains of Vermont. Mountain flying is probably the most challenging to master. BUT, as an aerial photographer, I need to know what the airplane is doing all the time. Rather than try to fly a specific regime, I keep a close eye on trend instruments. The ones that indicate 'rate of change'. I.E.- turn/bank, climb/sink rate, airspeed etc. Coordinated turns in the hills keeps me honest and out of trouble. And besides, steep turns, properly executed are a blast.

Len Emery

Len Emery Photography

400 South Street

Springfield VT 05156


Hello Everyone
Just wanted to say Hello I will be starting my flight training tomorrow and look forward to some great info and insight from this sight and its members.
wbdocomo99's picture
Flight Training
What ratings are you getting? First bit of advise is have fun. If you are going to pursue you commercial rating, learn the PPL material, not just passing the test learn it inside and out. It is the main component and it will make Inst and Comm easier.
steep turn advice
I just overheard one CFI talking to another last week about how his student finally "clicked" with steep turns once they started looking outside during the turn. Great advice.
Steep turns

Up in Alaska, where I learned to fly, they have this continuing problem called the 'moose turn'.  Usually below 1000 ft, the pilot spots an animal and starts to turn over it.  First 360 is usually fine - add some power and try to avoid any more back pressure.  The trouble with a steep turn is it becomes seriously uncordinated and when the ball moves to the bottom of the race, the last thing you need is that bottom rudder to re-center the ball (left aileron, left rudder).  You'd roll inverted in the direction of the rudder.  Do nothing and you're set for an eventual snap, over the top and done.  The direction of the snap is determined by the direction of turn.  Left turn (most of us like that better) with the ball way down on the left of the turn indicator - essentially it's saying too much right rudder (stands to reason, not enough left means too much right) so, when the wing gives up, it snaps in the direction of that supposedly abused rudder.  Several old and bold pilots told me - once the bank angle becomes more than the rudder can coordinate, step on that rudder and work the ailerorn back against the rudder pressure.  The ball will roll back into the center and you won't snap over the top.  Forty some years of bush flying has verified this technique.